Significant Contribution of Khānqāh Organization for Shaping Islamic Society in Sub-Continent: An Analytical Study

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

Dr. Musferah Mehfooz
Huma Ejaz

Abstract

This study discusses the relationship between ṣūfī and local population in the subcontinent. No doubt, that ṣūfīsm played an important role with their teachings and good morals, for bringing peace, harmony and Islamic culture in society. The topic of ṣūfīsm lends itself to a comparative world approach because the ideas of ṣūfīsm were not limited to a particular region or nation. This was due to the vast territory incorporated into Islamic society. To determine the impact of ṣūfīsm, it is necessary to evaluate how ṣūfīsm was able to interact with other segments of society. It is necessary to delineate the structure that ṣūfī practice developed in each region, how that structure was conducive to the social framework, and what effects developed as the ṣūfīs disseminated the real Islamic culture  among the general population. The article particularly sheds light on the role of Khānqāh organization for establishing peace, harmony, equality, and justice for a successful society and also delineates the distinctive features of Khānqāh in detail.

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

References

1. al-Qur'ān, 2: 208
2. al-Qur'ān, 3:164
3. al-Qur'ān, 62:2
4. Mufti Taqi Usmani, MarifulQur’ān,ī,(Karachi: Mīr Muḥammad kutub khānah, nd)vol. 8, p.448
5. al-Qur'ān, 91:9
6. al-Qur'ān, 87:14
7. Fareed-ul-Din Attar Nishapuri,Tazkirat al-Awliya, London, England.: Penguin (Non-Classics), 1990. ISBN 0-14-019264-6, 32-38
8. Carl Ernst, “Tasawwuf,” Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, ed. Richard Martin, Vol. 2 (New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004), 684.
9. William Chittick, “Sufism, Sufi Thought and Practice,” The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, ed, John L. Esposito, Vol. 4 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 102.
10. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/583591/ tariqa
11. Keller, “The Place of Tasawwuf in Traditional Islam” http://www.ummah.com/forum/showthread.php?111236-The-Place-of-Tasawwuf-in-Traditional-Islam
12. ʿImāmBukhari, Al-Jāmiʿ Al-Sahīh, Book of Dress ,Chapter: To wear a woolen cloak during the Ghazawat, Hadith No. 5799
13. ʿIbnMʿājah, SunanʿIbnMʿājah,Chapters on Dress, Hadith No. 3685
14. Barks, Coleman & John Moyne, translators, The Drowned Book: Ecstatic & Earthy Reflections of Bahauddin, the Father of Rumi, (NY: HarperCollins,2004) ISBN 0-06-075063-4
15. Abu Hamid, Al Ghazali, IhyaUloom al-Din, Dar al- Kutub al-ilmiyyah,Beirut,2001, p,249
16. FethullahGülen, The Emerald Hills of the Heart: Key Concepts in the Practice of Sufism (Izmir: Kaynak, 1998), 2.
17. al-Qur'ān, 22:78
18. ʿImāmBukhari, Al-Jāmiʿ Al-Sahīh, Book ofBelief,Chapter: Religion is very easy , Hadith No. 39
19. ʿImāmBukhari, Al-Jāmiʿ Al-Sahīh, Book ofKnowledge, Chapter: The Prophet (saws) used to take care of the people in preaching by selecting a suitable time so that they might not run away (never made them averse or bored them with religious talk and knowledge all the time), Hadith No. 69
20. Dr. Alan A. Godlas,"A Commentary on 'What is Tasawwuf?'-An Anonymous Persian Poem," Sufi Illuminations, 1(1996) 63-80. See also, Godlas, A. (trans.) “Sufism.” From the Fatawa of Shavkh‘Abd al-Halim Mahmud. 12 August 2001
21. .
22. Arthur Buhler, “Sufi Heirs of the Prophet”. University of South Carolina press. (1998).
23. Annemarie, S. “Mystical dimensions of Islam”.(Chapell Hill Uni. Of North Carolina,1975).
24. Simon Digby, “The Sufi Shaykh as a Source of Authority in Medieval India,” in India’s Islamic Traditions, 711-1750, ed. Richard M. Eaton (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 237.
25. Richard Maxwell Eaton, Sufis of Bijapur, 1300-1700: Social Roles of Sufis in Medieval India (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1978.), xxxi.
26. Encyclopedia Americana, A popular Dictionary, THOMAS, COWPERTHWATE & CO, 1840, 7Th Edition, 8/474
27. ʿImāmBukhari, Al-Jāmiʿ Al-Sahīh, Book of Fasting,Chapter: The right of the body in observing As-Saum, Hadith 196
28. Mir Khwurd, Siyar al-Auliya, Foundation of Islamic Publications, Lahore, Hadith No. 1398
29. AH/1978 AD, p. 194.
30. ʿIbnMʿājah, SunanʿIbnMʿājah, Book of Hajj Rituals, Hadith No. 3144
31. Ibid, Book of Zuhd ,Hadith No. 4382
32. (see his conversations, Khair al-Majalis)
33. The Khānqāh was a spacious building, much like a royal palace, providing separate accommodation for every visitor and inmate. The jama'atkhanah was a large room where all disciples slept, prayed and studied sitting on the floor. The Chishti saints built jama'atkhanas; the Suhrawardis constructed Khānqāhs. Common people, unable to appreciate the distinction, used the word Khānqāh even for the Chishtijama'atkhanahs, and now the term is used for all centers of spiritual activity without distinction. The zawiyahs were smaller places where mystics lived and prayed but, unlike the inmates of Khānqāhs and jama'atkhanahs, did not aim at establishing any vital contact with the world outside. In the 17th and the 18th centuries another type of Khānqāhs, came into existence. The primary aim of these Khānqāhs was to provide place for men of one affiliation to devote their time to religious meditation. They were smaller than the zawiya. SeeKhaliq Ahmad Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, StudiaIslamica, No. 8 (1957), pp. 51-69
34. Syed ZiauddinSajjadi, Maqadanai Bar Mabani-i-IrfanTasawwuf, Simat, Teheran,
35. 1372 SH, Vol.-I, p.256
36. Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, StudiaIslamica, No. 8 (1957), pp. 51-69 Published by: Maisonneuve& Larose
37. ibid
38. al-Qur'ān,24: 36-37
39. Shab-ul-Din Suharwardi, 'Awarif al-Ma'arif (Urdu translation, Lucknow, 1926), p. 126- 127
40. Michael Hamilton Burgoyne, Mumluk Jerusalem, An architectural Study, British School of Archalelogy in Jeruslem, World of Islam Festival Trust Paris,1987, pp.55-56
41. Nizami, “Aspects of Khānqāh Life,” 53
42. MARSHALL Hodgson, Venture o f Islam, University of Chicago Press, p.210.
43. Ibid, p.214
44. Nizam ad-Din Awliya', Morals for the Heart, recorded by Amir HasanSijzi, trans. Bruce B. Lawrence, Classics of Western Spirituality, 74 (New York: Paulist Press,1992), p.153
45. Ibid
46. Misbah al-Hiddyah, pp. 118-119.
47. Nizamad-dinAwliya, trans. Lawrence, p.294.
48. al-Qur'ān,51:19
49. ʿImāmBukhari, Al-Jāmiʿ Al-Sahīh, Book:Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat),Chapter: Zakat should be taken from the rich and given to the poor, Hadith No.1496
50. al-Qur'ān, 64:16
51. al-Qur'ān,59:9
52. Amir Khwurd, Siyar al-awliya' (Delhi: ChiranjiLal Jain, 1302/1885), 128, trans. K. A. Nizami, p.33.
53. Muhammad Hussain Haikel, Al Farouq Omar,, IslamiKutubKhana, 1987, p.309
54. Zia-al-Din Barani, Tarikh-i FiruzShahi, Sind Sagar Academy; 1st Pakistan ed edition (1974)p.334.
55. Nizami, “Aspects of Khānqāh Life,” p.52.
56. Jamal Qiwam, Qiwam al-Aqaid, as reproduced in Qandi Farsi, May1994, Chapter VI, p.73.
57. Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, pp. 51-69
58. Amir Khwurd, Siyar al-Auliya, p. 135
59. Amir HasanSijzi,Fuwa'id al-Fu'ad,Delhi, 1326, AH,p.77
60. Nizam ad-Din Awliya', Morals for the Heart, recorded by Amir HasanSijzi, trans.
61. Bruce B. Lawrence, Classics of Western Spirituality, 74 (New York: Paulist Press,
62. 1992), p.238
63. Hamid Qalandar, Khair al-Majalis, cd. K. A. Nizami, Aligarh. 1959, p. 75.
64. al-Kashanl, Tzz al-Din Mahmud. Kitdb-i Misbah al-hiddyah. Edited by Jalal al-Din, Tehran: Kitabkhanah-i $anacl, 1946, p. 119
65. Dr. Shahazad Qaiser, Culture & Spirituality: The Punjabi Sufi Poetry of Baba Faridud-Din Masud Ganj-i-Shakr, (Lahore: Suchet KitabGhar, 2017), p.4
66. Najibu'd-dinAbd al-Qadir SuhraWardi, Adad-ul-Muridin Awarif-ul-Marif, Part-I
67. Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, StudiaIslamica, No. 8 (1957), pp. 51-69
68. Dr. Syed Liaqath Peeran, The essence of Islam, Sufism and its impact on India, East-West Books, New Dehli, 1998, p.230
69. Manzur Ijaz Wichaar, “People’s history of the Punjab: Baba Farid – the province’s first poet,” http://www.wichaar.com/news/319/ARTICLE/11826/2009-01-30.html (accessed December 13, 2014).
70. Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, Some Aspect of Religion and Politics in India during the Thirteenth Century, Idrah-i-Adabiyat-Delli, Delhi, 1974, p.264
71. Dr. ShahazadQaiser, Culture & Spirituality: The Punjabi Sufi Poetry of Baba Faridud-Din Masud Ganj-i-Shakr, (Lahore: Suchet Kitab Ghar, 2017), see for details 39-49.
72. Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, Studia Islamica, No. 8 (1957), pp. 51-69
73. Ibid