Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as a Multidimensional Leader: An Assessment of Transformational, Ethical, Servant, Authentic and Spiritual Leadership Theories in the Context of Prophet’s Life
There has been done a lot of research on contemporary leadership theories. However, these theories haven’t been assessed enough in the light of leadership behaviors of religious figures. In Islamic context, instances from Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) life show that he practiced numerous leadership styles throughout his life. This research is aimed at understanding leadership as practiced by the last Prophet (PBUH) and explicating Prophet’s leadership style in the light of five widely discussed contemporary leadership theories i.e. transformational leadership, authentic leadership, servant leadership, ethical leadership and spiritual leadership. The paper discusses these leadership styles along with their respective dimensions. Each dimension is further explained in context of its endorsement or exemplification by Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) life. The paper highlights that today’s most discussed leadership styles and their facets were in fact practiced and demonstrated by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) fourteen hundred years ago. Based on his leadership conduct and practices, he can be seen as a multidimensional leadership figure who was simultaneously a transformational, ethical, servant, authentic and a spiritual leader to his followers.