English: (1)The Legitimacy of Sea Animals: A Critical Analysis

  • Aqsa+Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ijaz
Keywords: Halāl, Harām, Sea-animals, Seafood, Dead Fish, Shellfish, Shrimps, Lobsters, Prawns, Hunting Fish.

Abstract

Quran is the basic source of the religion of Islam. Allah Almighty has bestowed upon us is the fact that he has made our religion easy for us, and has not made it too difficult or unbearable. ﴾Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.﴿ (Al-Baqrāh 2:185). In this article, we will discuss about the sea- animals which is used for food. Seafood includes any form of food taken from the sea. Furthermore, seafood is any kind of sea life regarded as food by humans. Seafood prominently includes fish and other sea creatures like shellfish, prawns, crabs, lobsters, shrimps etc. In the last few years, the demand of seafood has doubled. The trends of seafood are widely eaten around the world, especially in Asia. There are many deviated exegeses of seafood in each school of thought. Al-HanafĪ school of thought said: all fishes except squids are halāl. In al-ShāfaĪ school of thought: all aquatic animals except those that have a human terrestrial counterpart are halāl. Al-MālikĪ school of thought: all aquatic animals are halāl. Al-Hanbli school of thought: all aquatic animals are halāl. In Shia school of thought: only fishes with scales and also shrimps are halāl. Al ShāfaĪ, al MālikĪ and al HanblĪ are laxed on this particular issue where they regarded most of the creatures of the ocean to be halāl. The view in Hanāfi school of thought is very much restricted, because they allow fish to be consumed from the sea. All other creatures are considered to be harām. “Allah has made lawful to you is the fished of the sea and its food” [Al-Māidah 5:96]

References

. Al-Baqrah, 2:185.
. “Encyclopedia of Islam”, (2009). P. 285.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halal,Retreived 29 Nov, 2019.
. Manzur, I. M, Mukarram. “Lisaān ul Arab.” Dar Sadir, Beruit, Vol. 11 P. 1623.
https://simple .wikipedia. org/wiki/Halal,Retreived 29 Nov, 2019.
. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/halal,Retreived 27 Nov, 2019.
. https://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/halal,Retreived 14 Nov, 2019
. “Al Moūjam al Waseēt”, Mjma’ ul lughat ul Arabia, Egypt, Vol. 11 P. 168. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/haram,Retreived 29 Nov,2019.
. Manzur, I. M, Mukarram. “Lisaān ul Arab.” Dar Sadir, Beirut, Vol. 12 P. 119.
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/haram,Retreived 27 Nov, 2019.
. Aāmdi, S. Muhammad. (1387H). “Al Ahkaām fi AsulȋlAhkaam.” Al Maktb ul Islmi, Beruit, Vol. 1 P. 156. https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/al-halal-wal-haram, Retreived 25 Nov, 2019.
. “Halal Encyclopedia of Islam.” (2009). Infobase Publishing. P. 284; Arābi, I.A. “Mahsoūl fi Asulul Fiqh.” Dar ul kutab ul Ilmia, Beirut, P. 22.
. Al-Māidah, 5: 4.
. Ibn Maājah, M. Qazweeni, “Al sunnan.” Kitaab al-At`imah, Dar ul ma’rfah, Beirut, Hadith no. 3314; see also Saheeh al-Jaami, 6970.
. Al-Bqrah, 2: 173.
. Al-Māidah, 5: 3.
. Al-Māidah, 5:96.
. Al-Nakhl,16:14.
. Al-Māidah, 5: 96.
. Al-Baqrah, 2:185.
. Al-Māidah, 5:96.
. Ulma e Hind, “Fatāwa Hindiā.”, Mutabah ul āmirah, Cairo, Vol. 5, P. 291.
. Abū Dawoūd, S, Ashas, (1421H). “Al Sunan.” Dar Ahyā al Turāth al Islami, Beirut, Kitaab al- At’imah, Hadith No.3811; Ibn Maājah, Hadith no. 3247; https://eshaykh. com/halal_ haram/dead-fish-which-float/, Retrieved November 4, 2019
. Sindhi, H.A.,Ghafur. (2012) “Faakihātul Bustaān Fi Masayāl Zibah wa Sayēd al Haiwaān.” Dar ul kutb ul Ilmia, Beirut, Lebnan, P. 214.
https://central-mosque. com/index. php/ General-Fiqh/the-fiqh-of-halal-and-haram-animals.html Reterived 15 Nov, 2019.
. Al Maidāh, 5:3.
. Sunan Abu Dawūd, Hadith No. 3811.
. Dars e Tirmidhȋ, Vol. 1 P. 280.
. Sunan Abu Dawūd, Hadith No: 3809.
. Al kasani, A. M., Ahmad. (1982). “Bada'i al-Sana'I.”, Dar ul kutab ul Arabi, Beirut, Vol. 5 P. 36
. Mishkaātul Musaābeh, Baab Ma yuhillū Aakalahū wa ma yuharrimū,
http://www.al-mawrid.org/index.php/questions/view/eating-fish-without-slaughtering.Retreived 15 Nov,2019
. Sunnan Ibn Majāh, Hadith No: 3314.
. http://www.daruliftaa.com/node/5924?txt_QuestionID=, 15-02-2005, Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam; DarulIftaa; Sayyiduna Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with him) said:
عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا أَنَّهُ قَالَ بَعَثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَعْثًا قِبَلَ السَّاحِلِ فَأَمَّرَ عَلَيْهِمْ أَبَا عُبَيْدَةَ بْنَ الْجَرَّاحِ وَهُمْ ثَلَاثُ مِائَةٍ وَأَنَا فِيهِمْ فَخَرَجْنَا حَتَّى إِذَا كُنَّا بِبَعْضِ الطَّرِيقِ فَنِيَ الزَّادُ فَأَمَرَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بِأَزْوَادِ ذَلِكَ الْجَيْشِ فَجُمِعَ ذَلِكَ كُلُّهُ فَكَانَ مِزْوَدَيْ تَمْرٍ فَكَانَ يُقَوِّتُنَا كُلَّ يَوْمٍ قَلِيلًا قَلِيلًا حَتَّى فَنِيَ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ يُصِيبُنَا إِلَّا تَمْرَةٌ تَمْرَةٌ فَقُلْتُ وَمَا تُغْنِي تَمْرَةٌ فَقَالَ لَقَدْ وَجَدْنَا فَقْدَهَا حِينَ فَنِيَتْ قَالَ ثُمَّ انْتَهَيْنَا إِلَى الْبَحْرِ فَإِذَا حُوتٌ مِثْلُ الظَّرِبِ فَأَكَلَ مِنْهُ ذَلِكَ الْجَيْشُ ثَمَانِيَ عَشْرَةَ لَيْلَةً ثُمَّ أَمَرَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بِضِلَعَيْنِ مِنْ أَضْلَاعِهِ فَنُصِبَا ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِرَاحِلَةٍ فَرُحِلَتْ ثُمَّ مَرَّتْ تَحْتَهُمَا فَلَمْ تُصِبْهُمَا. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith No: 4102, Kitab al-Maghazi)
; In another version of this narration, Sayyiduna Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) says:
عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، قَالَ: «خَرَجْنَا وَنَحْنُ ثَلاَثُ مِائَةٍ نَحْمِلُ زَادَنَا عَلَى رِقَابِنَا، فَفَنِيَ زَادُنَا حَتَّى كَانَ الرَّجُلُ مِنَّا يَأْكُلُ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ تَمْرَةً»، قَالَ رَجُلٌ: يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، وَأَيْنَ كَانَتِ التَّمْرَةُ تَقَعُ مِنَ الرَّجُلِ؟ قَالَ: «لَقَدْ وَجَدْنَا فَقْدَهَا حِينَ فَقَدْنَاهَا، حَتَّى أَتَيْنَا البَحْرَ، فَإِذَا حُوتٌ قَدْ قَذَفَهُ البَحْرُ، فَأَكَلْنَا مِنْهُ ثَمَانِيَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْمًا مَا أَحْبَبْنَا» (Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith No: 4104)
. Al-Māidah, 5: 96.
. Masnad Ahmad, Vol. 2 P. 97; Sunan Ibn Majāh, Hadith No: 331; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith No: 3314.
. Al MarghinānĪ, B. A., Hassan. “Hidayā.”, Maktba RahmanĪa, Lahore, Vol. 4 P. 71.
. Question: 5450; posted on 04-03-2004, See the Encyclopedia Britannica, Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam; Dar ul Iftaa; Leicester, UK; “Tafseer Ibn Katheer.”, Vol.3 P. 197.
. Mishkaāt ul Masābȋh, P. 241.
. Taqi Usmani, M. “Fiqhi Maqalāt.”, Islamic Publishers, Karachi, Vol. 3 P. 217.
https://islamqa.org/hanafi/daruliftaa-birmingham/20121
. Thānwi, A. A., Molana. (2005). “Imdādul Fatāwa.” Karachi, Vol. 4 P. 103.
. Yousf Ludhanwi, M. “Aapke Masaāil or Inka Hall.” Karachi, Vol. 4 P. 250.
. Ahmd Raza, B. Khan. (2000). “Fatāwa Ridawiyyāh.” Jamia Nzamiah Ridwiah, Lahore, Vol. 20 P. 339.
. Muhammad Kalim, Verified by Mufti Zahid Hussain al-Qadri, Preston. https://islam.stackexchange.com/questions/5743/lobsters-and-crabs-halal-or-haram-due-to-boiling-alive
. http://www.islamicacademy.org/html/Articles/English/Can_We_Eat_Shrimps.htm; “Jadeed Fiqhi Mubahas.” Vol. 5 P. 268.
. http://www.thesunniway.com/articles/item/240-is-eating-lobster-halal-or-haram, Retrived 14 Nov, 2019.
. “Al-Mūdawwānah.” Vol. 1 P. 542.
http://www.thesunniway.com/articles/item/240-is-eating-lobster-halal-or-haram, Retrived 14 Nov, 2019.
. “Hāshiyah al-Ra’wd.” Vol. 7 P. 430.
https://questionislam.com/question/seafood-haram-or-halal,Retreived 13 Nov,2019.
. Al-Nawāwi, A. M., Sharf, “Al Majkuh wa Sharhul Kabeer.” Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Vol. 1 P. 841. ; Ibn Qadāma, A. Ahmad. (1348H). “Al Mūghni.” Matbat ul manar, Egypt, ;Al Insaāf, Vol. 10 P. 324.
http://seekershub.org/ans-blog/2009/05/29/lobsters-and-sea-crabs-in-shafii-school/. Retreived 14 Nov, 2019.
. Al Majmūh, Vol. 9 P. 23.; Al DamerĪ, M. Isa. (1424H). “Hiyaatūl Haiwaān ulKubrah.” Dar ul kutb ul Ilmia, Beirut, Vol. 1 P. 472.
. Hayaatūl Haiwaān al Kubrah, Vol. 2 P. 745.; Al-Nawāwi. (1996). “Al-Majmu’ Sharh al-Mūhadhdhab.” Edited by Mahmud Matraji. Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, Vol. 1 P. 843.
. Al-Nisaā, 4:29.
. Al-Bāqrah, 2:195.
. https://eshaykh.com/halal_haram/hanafi-ruling-on-seafood/.Retreived 13 Nov, 2019.
. Hidāyah, Vol. 4 P. 442.
. Al Māidah, 5: 96.
. Sunan Abi Dawūd, Vol 1. P. 13.; Al-Mazâhibu’l-Arbaā, Vol. 2 P. 5.
https://www.quora.com/Are-all-seafood-halal-to-Islam
. Al- Kulayni, M. ya’qub. (1387H). “Al-Kāfi.” Dar ul Hadith, Vol. 6 P. 219.
Published
2021-01-06
Section
Articles