عربی لغات و معاجم اور الصحاح للجوہری کا تعارفی مطالعہ

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زاہدہ شبنم ، فاکہہ نعیم

Abstract

The Arabic language is the world's most rich, deep and versatile language and this is the reason why many dictionaries have been written for this language. The vast expanse of Arabic literature and the many dictionaries written in Arabic are an expression of the Arabs' love and taste for lexicon and literature. A dictionary is a book in which all the letters, words, derivatives, phrases and combinations used in a language are explained, briefly or in detail; etymologically, literally and metaphorically. Such a book is called a 'Mu'ajm' in Arabic (plural: mu'aajim). Abdulllah bin Abbas R.A's 'KitabGareeb Al Quran' was the first book of this genre and was written about the difficult words of the Quran. However, thisgenre of lexicography was established by Khaleel bin Ahmad Al Farahedi's book, 'KitabulAyeen' after which many similar books were written. The genre of writing dictionaries in Arabic reached its peak with Al-Jawhari's'Taaj al-LughawaSihah al Arabiyyah' (The Crown of Language and the Correct Arabic) which is commonly known as As-Sihah. The peculiar literary and academic style of this work proved to be a milestone for all lexicographers to come. Hence, the genre of 'Mu'ajm -writing' expanded and dictionaries were written based on the alphabetic order. Such dictionaries are called Mu'ajmLugviyah or Lafziyah. There were compilations of dictionaries based on specific topics too, such as Kitab Al-IbilwaAsma Al-Wuhoosh' (Book on Camels and Names of Animals). These are categorized as Mu'aajimManviyah. Similarly, Arabic dictionaries were compiled based on rare words or difficult words, opposites and even on examples. In the following lines, a brief list of thoseMu'aajimLafziyah is being given which have been compiled to date. Moreover, the special features and peculiarities of Jawhari's great lexical work 'As-Sihah' have been discussed. Ihave also written about the way As-Sihah has to be used. After Lisan-ul- Arab it is perhaps As-Sihah which received unparalleled fame. Hence, from time to time many research based books were written to further enhance and beautify it. I have compiled a list of the prominent among these.

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