Man as a Moral and Spiritual Being – A Study of the Views of Dr. Muhammad Rafi Uddin


Dr. Humaira Ahmad
Muhammad Awais Shaukat


The modern world view and episteme do not consider Man as the crown amongst all the creations. All the eminent Western psychologists and writers on Human Nature agree that man possesses an urge for ideals which is responsible for all kinds of human activities. According to Freud it is the sexual instinct, Adler relates this urge to the self- assertion and ego, and McDougall thinks it is the outcome of a combination of all the instincts. These theories have played an important part in creating the world view or weltanschauung of the man of the 20th century. But this explanation of Human Nature has deprived man from his classical position of spirituality and morality, depicting him as a social animal who is only driven by instincts alone. The Quranic concept of Human Nature as explained by Dr Rafi-ud-din proves that the urge for ideals is real, the ultimate and sole dynamic power of human actions as it find its roots not in instincts but in something transcendent and metaphysical. He describes Man as a spiritual and moral self that has innate knowledge of both good and evil. Moreover, he describes Human Nature in the light of the Holy Quran, successfully refuting the influential theories of Marx, Frued, Adler and McDougall. This paper would study the thoughts of Dr Muhammad Rafi ud Din pertaining to human personality and the magnitude of his critical works about Western thinkers and their ideas about Human Nature


How to Cite
Dr. Humaira Ahmad, & Muhammad Awais Shaukat. (2022). Man as a Moral and Spiritual Being – A Study of the Views of Dr. Muhammad Rafi Uddin. Al Qalam, 26(2), 259-271. qalam.v26i2.1637


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