(5) Social Chaos in Indian Society and Status of Religious Minorities in India after 1947
The social nature of Indian society is very complex. It has multi-cultural, multi-religious and multi-ethnic groups having different lingual and conceptual backgrounds. Hindus are in majority and are dominant politically in India. Due to conversion from Hinduism to other religions, a lot of religious minorities have been created in India. The attitude and behavior of common Hindus and ruling authorities is not as same as they are treated in other countries as a minority. Unfortunately, in India, religious minorities are not enjoying basic rights as charted by United Nation. For these reasons, social disorder is strengthening day to day in Indian society. A number of religious movements are functional to get separate piece of land. Many freedom and rebellion movement are active in India due to worst exploitation by extremist Hindus. After studying the UNO declaration for minorities and practical social status of religious minorities in Indian society, it was felt to highlight the reason for bad treatment for Non-Hindus in India. The main objective of this study is to reveal the legal and social rights of minorities given by Indian government and attitude of Hindu religious groups in India. Three main religious minorities: Christians, Muslims and Sikhs would be taken in this study and how they are being treated after 1947 to till would be discussed? An analytical and qualitative research method will be used in this study.
Singh. V. (2007). Communalism and Communal Riots in Gujarat: A Sociological Study, Doctoral Thesis, Department of Sociology, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India, p.1.
Encyclopedia Britannica, vol.15, p.564.
Webster’s New Explorer College Dictionary, (2003), Springfield: Federal Street Press, p.564.
Hornby. A. S. (1974). Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, 3rd ed. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, p.538.
General Assembly Resolution 47/135, December 18, 1992.
United Nation Declaration on Minority Rights, 2012. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Minorities2012/Pages/minorityrights2012.aspx accessed on September 5, 2019.
Bakshi. P. M. (2001). The Constitutional Law of India, 8th ed. Delhi: Universal Law Publishing Company, p.58.
Kaur. H. (2012). Cultural and Educational Rights of Minorities, Doctoral thesis, Department of Law, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, p.95.
Singh. V. (2007). Communalism and Communal Riots in Gujrat: A Sociological Study, Doctoral Thesis, Department of Sociology, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India, p.1.
Kinnvall. C. (2006). Globalization and Religious Nationalism in India, 1st ed. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, p.87.
Saeed. A. and Sarwar. M. (2009). Trek To Pakistan, (Lahore: Institute of Pakistan Historical Research, p.62.
Wynbrandt. J. (2009). A Brief History of Pakistan, New York: Facts on Files, Inc, p.139.
Talbot. J. (1998). Pakistan a Modern History, 1st ed. London: C Hurt & Co. Ltd, p.115.
Pereira. A. Govt to arm Muslims to fight militants? Retrieved from https://www.firstpost.com/india/assam-live-cm-says-govt-to-institute-judicial-inquiry-into-attacks-1506649.html accessed on July 29, 2019.
Brass. P. R. (2003). Muslims Violence in Contemporary India, New York: Jackson School Publications, p.60.
Arcand. J L. and Chakraborty. P. What Explains Ethnic Violence? Evidence from Hindu-Muslim Riots in India, 2, Retrieved from http/pavelchakraorty.weebly.com/uplods/9/5/1/5/riots_revised_may_201_ep/ accessed on July 30, 2019.
Headlines 11:30, Retrieved from http/www.92newshd.tv/ accessed on July 30, 2019.
Tatla. D. S. (1999).The Sikh Diaspora, 1st ed. London: UCL Press Limited, p.16.
Mahmood. C K. (1996). Fighter for Faith and Nation, Philadelphia, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press, p.114.
Nijhawan. M. (2016). The Precarious Diasporas of Sikh and Ahmadiyya Generatons, Canada: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.5-6.
Bauman. C. M. (2015). Pentecostals, Proselytization and Anti-Christians Violence in Contemporary India, New York: Oxford University Press, p.2.
Hussain. M. Negative role of Indian media, Retrieved from, http://www.radio.gov.pk/programme/05-03-2019, accessed on August 25, 2019.
Median and Issue responsibility, Retrieved from https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/article13059658.ece, accessed on August 25, 2019.
Political Problems in India, Retrieved from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articles, accessed on August 25, 2019.
Smith. D. (2003). Hinduism and Modernity, London: Blackwell Publishing, p.103.
Schofield. V. (2003). Kashmir in Conflict, London: I.B. Tauris & CO Ltd, p.28.
Maxwell. N. (1970). India’s China War, 2nd ed. Bombay: JAICO Publishing House, p.85.